Here I am going to provide you CBSE Notes for Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 Development. In this chapter you will make a beginning in understanding the topic Development. In higher classes, you learn
further about development issues. Here in this chapter, you will find answers to many questions such as; what should a
country be like? What are the essential things that we require? Can life be better for all? How should people live together? Can
there be more equality? The answers to these questions are not found only in Economics but also in History and Political
Science. This is because the way we live today is influenced by the past. By going through Development Class 10 Notes you
will acquire a better command on this chapter. So,use these notes and do your best!!
TABLE OF CONTENTS :-
• What Development Promises – Different Peoples, Different Goals
Income and Other Goals
• National Development
• How to Compare Different Countries or States?
Income and Other Criteria
• Public Facilities
• Sustainability of Development
What Development Promises – Different Peoples, Different Goals
• Different people can have different developmental goals
• What may be development for one may not be development for the other person. It may even be destructive for the other.
• For example, a girl from a rich urban family gets as much freedom as her brother and is able to decide what she wants to
do in life. She is able to pursue her studies abroad.
Income and Other Goals
• People want more income. Money, or material things that one can buy with it, is one factor on which our life depends.
• However, the quality of our life also depends on non-material things such as equal treatment, freedom, security and
respect for others.
• Companies provide material thing like, money. But people also want non-material thing like, freedom, security, and
respect of others.
• Some companies provide less salary but offer regular employment which enhances sense of securities. In other case,
some companies provide high salary but offer no job securities. They reduce sense of securities.
• For development, people look at a mix of goals. The developmental goals are not only about better income but also about
other important things in life.
• National development refers to ability of a nation to improve standard of living of its citizens.
• Standards of living of citizens depend upon per capital income, Gross Domestic Product, literacy rate and availability of
health etc. These factors also consider as measure of improvement.
• Different persons could have different as well as conflicting notions of a country’s development.
• Countries with higher income are more developed than others with less income.
• As different countries have different populations, comparing total income will not tell us what an average person earns.
• So, we compare the average income of countries.
• Average income is the total income of the country divided by its total population. It is also called per capita income.
• Average Income = Total Income of Country / Total Population of Country
In World Development Reports, per capita income is used in classifying countries.
- Countries with per capita income of US$ 12,056 per annum and above in 2017, are called rich countries.
- Countries with per capita income of US$ 955 or less are called low-income countries.
Income and Other Criteria
• For achieving development goal of people, people not only want better income, they also want non-material thing like,
freedom, security, and respect of others.
Some important terms:
• Literacy Rate : It measures the proportion of literate population in the 7 and above is group.
• Infant Mortality Rate (IMR):-
It indicates the number of children that die before the age of 1 year as a proportion of 1000
live children born in that particular year.
• Net Attendance Ratio : It is the total number of children of age group 14 and 15 years attending school as a percentage of
total number of children in the same age group.
• When we think of a nation or a region, besides average income, public facilities are equally significant attributes.
• These are the services provided by the government to its citizens.
• Some of the important public facilities include infrastructure, sanitation, public transport, health care, water, etc.
• As we know that Punjab has more income than the average person in Kerala but Kerala has a low infant Mortality Rate
because of better public system like, Public Distribution System which provide Health and nutritional status to the state.
• We need public facility because we are not able to purchase all things by money. We cannot able to buy a pollution free
environment with the help of money.
Sustainability of Development
• Sustainable development is defined as development that meets the needs of the present, without compromising the
ability of future generations.
• Scientists have been warning that the present type and levels of development are not sustainable.
• Some of the examples are:
2.1. Overuse of ground water
2.2. Exhaustion of natural resources
• For sustainable development, we have to use non-renewable resources like carbon based originally designed fuel for the
quantity how much we needed.
• Some renewable resources like groundwater will take long time for replenished. So, we should use that resource in finite